All works in this volume except for those previously published and copyrighted (as noted in each such chapter) are available under a Creative Commons License Attribution–ShareAlike 3.0 License, CC BY-SA. (See https://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.)

1. Christopher Alexander and Peter Eisenman, “The 1982 Alexander-Eisenman Debate”, Katarxis No. 3, September 2004. This version © Katarxis Publishing, 2004. All rights reserved. Reprinted by permission of the editors of Katarxis3 (Lucien Steil, Nikos Salingaros, Brian Hanson, and Michael Mehaffy), and by permission of one of the authors (C.A.).

2. Christopher Alexander, "Some Sober Reflections on the Nature of Architecture in Our Time”, Katarxis No. 3, September 2004. © Katarxis Publishing, 2004. All rights reserved. Reprinted by permission of the editors of Katarxis3 (Lucien Steil, Nikos Salingaros, Brian Hanson, and Michael Mehaffy), and by permission of the author.

3. Léon Krier, “Building Civil Cities”, Traditional Building, 2005. © Clem Labine’s Traditional Building, Restore Media LLC. All rights reserved. This version taken from and reprinted by permission of the Léon Krier website.

4. Articles published on Metropolismag.com CC BY-SA by Michael W. Mehaffy & Nikos A. Salingaros, 2011, 2012. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission.

5. Nikos A. Salingaros, “A Biological Understanding of Architecture and Urbanism”, extract from an essay in Katarxis No. 3, September 2004. © Katarxis Publishing, 2004. All rights reserved. Reprinted by permission of the editors of Katarxis3 (Lucien Steil, Nikos Salingaros, Brian Hanson, and Michael Mehaffy).

6. Nikos A. Salingaros, “Fractal Art and Architecture Reduce Physiological Stress”, JBU—Journal of Biourbanism, No. 3, March 2013. Reprinted by permission of the International Society of Biourbanism.

7. Nikos A. Salingaros & Kenneth G. Masden, extract from pages 61-70 of “Neuroscience, the Natural Environment, and Building Design”, Chapter 5 of: Biophilic Design: the Theory, Science and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life, edited by Stephen R. Kellert, Judith Heerwagen, and Martin Mador (John Wiley, New York, 2008), pages 59-83. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008. All rights reserved. This material is reproduced with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

8. Nikos A. Salingaros & Kenneth G. Masden, “Architecture: Biological Form and Artificial Intelligence", The Structurist, No. 45/46 (2006), pages 54-61. Reprinted by permission of The Structurist, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.

9. Edward O. Wilson, “Integrated Science and the Coming Century of the Environment”, Science, Volume 279, No. 5359 (27 March 1998), pages 2048-2049.